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  • court reporting services MD ad
    by Juan Puerto on October 7, 2022 at 3:43 pm

    The post court reporting services MD ad appeared first on Planet Depos.

  • Making the Case to Settle
    by Suzanne Quinson on August 3, 2022 at 12:00 pm

    According to the American Bar Association, most civil cases are settled before trial by mutual agreement between the parties. It is estimated as many as 80-90% of cases settle before trial, usually after the discovery process. Why is that? Counsel can make intelligent predictions of the outcome of a trial once discovery is completed. Trial The post Making the Case to Settle appeared first on Planet Depos.

  • Remote Depositions Remain a Popular Option After Covid
    by Suzanne Quinson on July 6, 2022 at 1:25 pm

    In-person depositions are on the rise again, but remote depositions are here to stay. Even though remote depositions are no longer the only option, they remain a very convenient and increasingly efficient option. As a Planet Depos survey recently demonstrated, many attorneys predict that they will continue to use the remote deposition option, or hybrid, The post Remote Depositions Remain a Popular Option After Covid appeared first on Planet Depos.

  • The Final Transcript: Tips to Make it Count
    by Suzanne Quinson on June 10, 2022 at 5:00 pm

    The transcript is the reason to schedule a court reporter. Read these tips to get the most accurate transcript on time, every time. The post The Final Transcript: Tips to Make it Count appeared first on Planet Depos.

  • Depositions in the United Kingdom Post-Covid
    by Suzanne Quinson on May 25, 2022 at 5:00 pm

    The United Kingdom is open and depositions are scheduling. Get all the details to schedule in-person and remote depositions in the U.K. The post Depositions in the United Kingdom Post-Covid appeared first on Planet Depos.

Director's Blog: the latest from USPTO leadership Updates from America’s innovation agency

  • Register for the 2022 Hispanic Innovation and Entrepreneurship Program
    by USPTO on October 6, 2022 at 9:16 pm

    Editorial note: This is a post about the USPTO from the U.S. Department of CommerceDo you want to learn about valuable tools available to inventors and entrepreneurs? Are you eager to be inspired and informed by accomplished Hispanic innovators? If so, make sure to attend the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office’s (USPTO) free, online 2022 Hispanic Innovation and Entrepreneurship Program on Wednesday, October 12 from 1-4 p.m. ET. Successful Hispanic innovators will discuss their creative and business journeys, and you'll hear from experts about resources and funding that can help you on your own journey. See the agenda, learn about special guests, and register early.Subtítulos en español disponibles. This program will have live captions in Spanish.Topics include:• How to take your idea to the marketplace• How to protect your intellectual property• How to fund your business and get help along the waySpeakers include:• Maria Artunduaga, Founder and CEO of Samay Health, a company focused on fighting chronic respiratory diseases• Lawrence Chavez, Founder and CEO of Everyday Contacts, a company bringing a new contact lens to market• Oriana Papin-Zoghbi, CEO and Co-founder of AOA Dx, a Y Combinator-backed biotech company focused on early-stage ovarian cancer detection• Byron Rojas, President and Founder of EASYMETERING LLC., a company that creates advanced metering technology to link smart appliances to the smart gridThe Hispanic Innovation and Entrepreneurship program is just one of many programs the USPTO offers for aspiring and current entrepreneurs, wherever they may be in their innovation journeys. To learn more about the USPTO’s efforts to ensure that people from all backgrounds have opportunities to become innovators, visit the USPTO’s inclusive innovation page.“Only by working together and inclusively will we incentivize more innovation from more people, protecting that innovation with intellectual property, and helping get those ideas to impact to solve world problems and create jobs and economic prosperity,” said Kathi Vidal, Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTO. “You can play a role by reposting and getting the message out. Join us!”Register now for the 2022 Hispanic Innovation and Entrepreneurship Program!

  • Standard essential patent policy and practices: We want to hear from you!
    by USPTO on October 4, 2022 at 1:21 pm

    Blog by Kathi Vidal, Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTOTechnical standards play a critical role in our daily lives. From the phones in our pockets to the computer networks that support our communications with colleagues and family, standardized technology has brought many benefits to society. Technical standards are most effective when innovators commit their patented technologies to the standard, agreeing to license those patents on “fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory” (FRAND) terms. Those patents — standard essential patents (SEPs) — are necessary to practice a given technical standard. By agreeing to license patents on FRAND terms, the patentee is compensated by licensees for their contributions while facilitating the implementation of the standard more broadly in society and across the globe. Standards also enable small to medium-sized companies to more easily access the market, creating competition that helps drive down prices for Americans and increasing the availability of these cutting-edge technologies. From the moment I took the helm at the USPTO, standards policy as it relates to intellectual property has been one of my key priorities. In June, the USPTO, along with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ), announced the withdrawal of the 2019 “Policy Statement on Remedies for Standards-Essential Patents Subject to Voluntary F/RAND Commitments.” After considering public input on the 2019 Statement and possible revisions, our three agencies concluded that withdrawing the 2019 statement (and not moving forward with the draft December 2021 draft statement) was the best course of action for promoting both competition and innovation in the standards ecosystem. Though our agencies agreed to withdraw the statement, our work was not done.In July, I held discussions with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) on the margins of its annual Meetings of Assemblies in Geneva. There, the USPTO signed a memorandum of understanding with WIPO to cooperate on activities that will lend efficiency and effectiveness to the resolution of disputed SEP matters, by leveraging existing resources of  the USPTO and the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center. During my recent trip to Asia, I also spoke with my counterparts in Singapore and other ASEAN countries on patent valuation and building out arbitration procedures and processes with stakeholders.A first step in our collaboration with WIPO will be a webinar cosponsored by the USPTO and WIPO on October 6. During the event, the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center will share its experience in resolving FRAND and SEP disputes. On October 11, I will participate in an SEP roundtable in Detroit with the automotive industry. I also look forward to speaking at the Global FRAND and SEP Symposium on October 21, alongside Lisa Jorgenson, Deputy Director of the Patents and Technology Sector at WIPO. I am very interested in hearing more from stakeholders on the role the USPTO can play to support them in the standards space. To this end, we are also planning a broader stakeholder session titled “Innovating ideas around standard essential patents.” The event, originally scheduled for October 18, is postponed to accommodate greater in-person attendance and to allow us to hear from all interested stakeholders, including a diverse cross-section of the SEP community. The USPTO is looking to reschedule the event in 2023. Keep an eye out for a future announcement. We are taking an all-of-government approach and will announce additional upcoming engagement opportunities soon.  Meanwhile, if you have any questions or would like to engage on this topic, please email

  • Go for Real: An innovative USPTO partnership helping young consumers avoid dangerous fakes
    by USPTO on September 19, 2022 at 3:15 pm

    Blog by Kathi Vidal, Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTO This is the first blog post in a series the USPTO is launching on our comprehensive anti-counterfeiting efforts to spread the word on the dangers of buying fake products and encourage more consumers to buy the real thing. Stay tuned for more in this series as we continue our call to shop smart and stay safe.As America’s Innovation Agency, the USPTO is working to protect brands, from those owned by individuals and start-ups to the world’s most well-known brands. The USPTO is working to change the narrative around purchasing counterfeit products and informing consumers about the dangers and consequences of purchasing counterfeit goods.Counterfeit products, such as faulty electronics and fake medicines, cause serious injuries and death. Fake electronics and consumer items can cause fires or include dangerous chemicals that can seep into skin. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, in its One Pill Can Kill campaign, notes that criminal drug networks are flooding the U.S. market with mass-produced fake pills and falsely marketing them on social media and e-commerce platforms as legitimate prescription pills.Buying fake products funnels money from U.S. jobs and companies into the hands of criminal enterprises, supporting human trafficking, the gun and drug trades, and other crimes. We estimate that the global sale of counterfeit goods hovers around $2 trillion per year—more than the GDP of 216 countries, including Italy, Canada, and Spain. In fiscal year 2021, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement–Homeland Security investigation seized over 27,000 shipments containing counterfeit goods, with a total value (had they been genuine) of more than $3.3 billion.Here at the USPTO, we are working across government and with legitimate businesses who invest significantly in their products and brands. We are joined in this important work by our colleagues at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the International Trade Administration (ITA), the U.S. Copyright Office, and private sector leaders such as the International Trademark Association (INTA), the National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF), innovation film organization Cinequest, and several others. Together, we must work to curb the physical and economic harms caused by faulty and dangerous counterfeit products, while freezing out the criminal enterprises they support.Education on the dangers of counterfeit goods must start early. That’s why, since 2019, the USPTO has partnered with the National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC) and McGruff the Crime Dog® on the Go For RealTM campaign. This innovative, multi-format public awareness initiative informs tweens, teens, and their caregivers and educators on how to spot counterfeit products and avoid the risk of harm they pose.On August 5, McGruff the Crime Dog visited the USPTO headquarters in Alexandria, VA (Photos by Jeff Isaacs/USPTO)On August 11, the Go For Real campaign debuted its latest public service announcement (PSA), “The Real McGruff”, featuring a 3-D animated McGruff the Crime Dog and his nephew, Scruff. This new PSA will be seen by millions in both English and Spanish on television, social media, and other distribution channels. In its debut week alone, the PSA aired approximately 300 times, including on major networks and on Spanish-language channels in Los Angeles, Phoenix, Denver, Boston, and more.The USPTO is excited to team up with this modernized McGruff to take a bite out this 21st century crime that puts the health and safety of millions at risks, jeopardizes American businesses and the millions of workers they employ, and threatens American competitiveness worldwide. Protecting legitimate brands is vital to ensuring a safe and stable economy, and we encourage all consumers to “Go For Real.”You can view the new PSA here, and check out the rest of the Go For Real campaign’s engaging and educational content. My personal favorites include:• The award-winning “You’re Smart. Buy Smart” PSA, debuted in November 2021. It has been aired on television channels around the country more than 50,000 times.• The digital “Dupe Detector Kit,” an interactive e-book that challenges readers to test their “Dupe Detector” skills. It provides tips on how to tell a real product from a fake one, trivia to reinforce learning, and the opportunity to earn points that can be put toward collectible badges on the Go For Real campaign webpage.• The #GoForReal Challenge, an interactive quiz that will test your knowledge on the surprising—and sometimes astonishing—materials that are used in fake products.Young people are getting the message. A survey conducted last year by Ipsos, an international market research and consulting firm, found that teens exposed to the Go For Real campaign demonstrated a greater awareness of the dangers of counterfeits, felt more confident in spotting fake goods, and were more likely to make an effort to buy genuine products.And we’re just getting started. Those in the Washington, D.C., area can see Go For Real advertising on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s bus and metro system. Recently, the National Crime Prevention Council teamed up with NASCAR to raise awareness of the campaign, with racer Joey Gase displaying the Go for Real logo on his #35 car at the WAWA 250 in Daytona Beach, Florida. And in the coming months, the Go For Real campaign will be debuting a new online game and new educational content, and hosting more in-person events featuring the beloved McGruff.Go for Real logo on Joey Gase's #35 car at the WAWA 250 in Daytona Beach, Florida (photo courtesy of the National Crime Prevention Council)Go For Real is also making waves internationally: Campaigns have already been launched in Mexico and Thailand. The latest iteration is in Mexico, where the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property (IMPI) has developed the “Elige el Original” (“choose the original”) campaign. It features a new mascot designed to better appeal to Mexican children and teens: an Axolotl, or a Mexican salamander. And there are future plans to expand into other global markets.By working together to reduce the scourge of fakes and raising awareness about the dangers and costs of purchasing counterfeits, it’s our hope that we can make a real difference in this effort. And we always welcome additional collaborators! Whether you are a brand or leading a start-up, or just someone who wants to make a difference, please join us and get involved by emailing And if you think you've spotted a counterfeit, report it to help others shop smart and stay safe. Let’s all pledge to “Go For Real.TM”

  • Advancing U.S. interests abroad
    by USPTO on September 6, 2022 at 8:04 am

    Blog by Kathi Vidal, Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTODirector Vidal addresses the WIPO General Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2022.The Biden Administration is strengthening international engagement and economic growth by working in partnership with allies and partner countries to enhance resilience, sustainability, inclusiveness, fairness, and competitiveness. To advance that goal, I recently led a USPTO delegation at the 63rd Series of Meetings of the Assemblies of the Member States of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland.Our delegation participated in numerous bilateral meetings with other intellectual property (IP) offices to improve IP systems globally. We are making it easier for U.S. businesses to compete through stronger IP protection and reduced barriers to global protection.While in Geneva, we formed new partnerships with WIPO to advance the development of green technologies and to support work in the standard-setting area. In support of the Biden Administration’s actions to address the clear and present danger of climate change, the USPTO entered into a partnership with WIPO GREEN. This global online platform facilitates the dissemination and advancement of environmentally friendly technologies, provides opportunities for collaboration and partnership, and encourages widespread adoption.With 146 international partners, including major tech companies, IP offices, business groups, and non-governmental organizations, WIPO GREEN provides opportunities for U.S. innovators to advance their innovation in green technologies and bring their ideas to market and to the world. This work complements our own climate change initiatives, including the USPTO Climate Change Mitigation Pilot Program, which accelerates the examination of patent applications involving innovations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Following our withdrawal of the 2013, 2019, and the decision not to finalize the 2021 draft standard-essential patent (SEPs) policy statements, the USPTO and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been working with the Biden Administration and stakeholders on strategies to encourage and advance U.S. interests in the key technologies that have and will become standards across the globe—from wireless communication technologies and computer connection standards to new and emerging technologies. We must continue to encourage U.S. participation in standard-setting organizations and the efficient and effective adoption of those technologies by our industries, as part of our efforts to promote innovation in the standards space and drive sustainable, long-term growth in the U.S. economy.Director Vidal and WIPO Director General Daren Tang signed an agreement to facilitate the resolution of disputes related to standard essential patents.On July 20, WIPO Director General Daren Tang and I signed an agreement to bring awareness to services that WIPO has in place to facilitate the resolution of disputes related to SEPs. As part of the agreement, we will leverage existing resources both at the USPTO and at WIPO’s Arbitration and Mediation Center. Stay tuned for additional programs on mediation and ways for the USPTO to be a catalyst for economic growth in this critical space.Director Vidal and Director General of the Malaysia IP office, Mr. Abdul Haris Lakar, signed a memorandum of understanding to launch a bilateral Patent Prosecution Highway Pilot Program. The Geneva meetings provided our delegation an opportunity to meet with leaders of many of the world’s IP offices, including the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office, both of which are members of the multilateral IP groups IP5 and Trilateral. I also discussed with several of my counterparts, including from Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF), an initiative launched by President Biden in May 2022 to ensure American workers and businesses can compete in the Indo-Pacific market, while also benefitting people of the region by enhancing the economic competitiveness of the United States and the IPEF partners. At our meeting with the Director General of the Malaysia IP office, Mr. Abdul Haris Lakar, we signed a memorandum of understanding to launch a bilateral Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Pilot Program with Malaysia. Building on the now 37 PPH agreements the USPTO has entered into to reduce the barriers and costs for IP protection by US companies and innovators across the globe, and to increase efficiencies and improve quality, we met with many other countries to discuss expanding PPH and other collaborations.We also continued our discussions and support for the Ukrainian Intellectual Property Institute. Resolutely, they continue to operate without interruption despite the Russian invasion of their country.All-in-all, we met with senior officials of IP offices in Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, and North America, and held discussions which ranged from collaborations to address challenges in the areas of global health and the economy to brainstorming additional ways to increase the participation of women and other underrepresented and underserved groups in IP.As we hear from stakeholders, we have also broadened our engagement with the UK Intellectual Property Office and are working with them to establish a US-UK IP working group to continue and expand our efforts. As former leader Tim Moss moves on, I’ve welcomed interim CEO Adam Williams and we are in discussions about future collaborations.As we continue regular conversations and collaborations with WIPO and these countries on key stakeholder priorities, I now head to Southeast Asia to continue these efforts. During that trip, I will continue our work with WIPO, IP5 and the Trilateral offices, as well as with IPEF countries.Together, we will evolve the global IP ecosystem to be a true catalyst for more inclusive innovation and economic prosperity—one that will help solve the common challenges we all face.

  • Call for collaboration with stakeholders
    by USPTO on August 31, 2022 at 8:05 am

    Blog by Kathi Vidal, Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTOWe are working across our great agency to improve our processes, technology, and training. Each and every one of us is committed to providing the best service possible for all innovators and entrepreneurs, from pro se to experienced. Our goal is to issue and maintain robust and reliable intellectual property (IP) rights that strengthen our economy, provide jobs, and create opportunity.Over the last four months, I’ve held numerous listening sessions with USPTO employees, including patent examiners, trademark examining attorneys, and Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) and Trademark Trial and Appeal Board judges, both in Alexandria, Virginia, and across the country. I’ve met with hundreds of our team members, new and experienced, and heard their ideas on ways we can improve. Based on feedback I received, last week I met with the entire utility patent examiner corps. Patents management and I announced several key initiatives to improve the work we do. We are collaborating, including with the unions, to improve every aspect of our work. We have already extended work hours, implemented process improvements to make patent application classification and routing even more efficient and accurate, and announced numerous other agency-wide initiatives. I also met with many of our design patent examiners, and given the importance of design to our economy, we are currently focusing not only on additional and expanded training, but also on many more initiatives. It is one of my top priorities to improve the USPTO, for the benefit of all those who serve it as well as all those we serve, including the American public. Deputy Director Derrick Brent, Director Kathi Vidal, and Acting Commissioner for Patents Andrew Faile met with the patent examining corps on August 23, 2022. (Photo by Jay Premack/USPTO)In meeting with many of you, I have appreciated that you, our stakeholders, also want to know how you can help. In addition to sharing all your great ideas through our meetings, in response to our requests for comments (more to come!), as part of notice-and-comment rulemaking (stay tuned!), and via the new Engage with the Director webpage, we hope you will work with us to provide opportunities for our patent examiners, those in the PTAB, and those across our agency to learn about your technology.To that end, the USPTO has developed several successful programs to keep patent examiners up to date on the latest technological developments, emerging trends, and recent innovations. The programs provide our patent examiners, both in utility and design, opportunities to hear from experts who work in the various technologies examined throughout the USPTO. We are also opening up these opportunities so our PTAB employees, those in Trademarks, and others at the USPTO can likewise benefit. Engaging with scientists, engineers, and other experts from corporations, universities, and innovative organizations allows us to continually enhance the quality of the work we do.We encourage all of you who can contribute to our learning, to open your doors and collaborate with us. You can do so through the Patent Examiner Technical Training Program (PETTP), the Site Experience Education (SEE) program, and Customer Partnership Meetings (CPMs), all of which provide examiners and others at the USPTO with the chance to interact with our stakeholders while enhancing their technical expertise. Patent Examiner Technical Training ProgramPatent examiners participate in technical training, including on designs, through courses provided by the PETTP. These courses were originally devised as in-person training sessions, but the USPTO has recently held them virtually. The sessions cover a vast variety of topics, such as next-generation tools for spatial genomics, additive manufacturing, machine learning, and chemistry for mitigating climate change, just to name a few. In fiscal year 2022 alone, the PETTP held 327 events with 1,770 total participants. Technology experts volunteer their time to speak with USPTO employees as guest lecturers. More information on the PETTP, including past guest speakers, is available on our website. Please contribute to the body of knowledge of our examining corps, and others at the USPTO, by volunteering as a guest lecturer for this program and filling out the PETTP sign-up form. If you have any questions, you can also contact or view our PETTP flyer. Site Experience Education programOne of the most direct engagement initiatives between stakeholders and patent examiners, the SEE program connects innovators, scientists, designers, and engineers with patent examiners right where innovation is happening. Participating organizations have a chance to communicate directly with patent examiners and gain a greater understanding of the importance of the patent system and how it works. In fiscal year 2019, the program provided 98 site visit experiences to 322 examiners. Due to the pandemic, we also now work with organizations virtually. The new virtual format provides examiners with live videos, live demos, and pre-recorded product demos with live narration on a variety of topics curated by the host organization.Through this program, examiners and others at the USPTO can visit organizations within the continental U.S., learn about new and evolving technologies, and experience how these technologies are developed and operate in the field. More information on the SEE program, including past trips, is available on our website. Please volunteer as a host organization by filling out the SEE program interest form. If you have any questions or comments regarding the SEE program, please email us at or view our SEE flyer.Customer Partnership Meeting led by Technology Center 2600, which oversees the technology of communications. (Photo by the USPTO)Patents Customer Partnership MeetingsPatents CPMs provide a valuable opportunity for our stakeholders to meet directly with USPTO employees in a collaborative forum. Recent topics of discussion have included statutory provisions governing patent infringement, the Deferred Subject Matter Eligibility Response pilot program, the provision of explicit rationale under 35 U.S.C. 103(a), and searches for biological sequences, to name a few. Over 460 people participated in a recent virtual CPM. At these meetings, we share plans and operational efforts to better educate and inform our stakeholders. These meetings also enable the patent community to share ideas, experiences, and insights as well as discuss examination policies and procedures, and solutions for improvement. More information on CPMs is available on our Patents CPM page. Please participate as a guest speaker for a CPM by filling out the Partnership Meetings speaker interest form. For general questions or comments about CPMs, please email For specific questions regarding a certain topic or technology, please contact our CPM specialists.We all have a role to play in the IP system, to ensure that robust and reliable IP promotes innovation, investment, and economic prosperity. Please provide training by participating in one or more of these programs—either in person or virtually—in your area of expertise. You can also sign up for email updates to get the latest news from the USPTO and information on upcoming events, and you can connect with me through the Engage with the Director webpage. We look forward to the progress we will make together, as drivers of America’s economic engine, to further strengthen our world-class IP system.

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LJN - Internet Law & Strategy The newsletter publishing arm of ALM, publishers of The National Law Journal, The American Lawyer and legal newspapers of record throughout the U.S.

  • Business in California: Website Accessibility Suits
    on October 4, 2022 at 5:45 am

    While there is no silver bullet to compliance, settlements requiring WCAG 2.0 AA are regularly approved by the courts. This would suggest that taking active steps to comply with the WCAG would be sufficiently reasonable to comply with the ADA and could be used to deter zealous plaintiff's firms early in, if not before, the litigation.      

  • Recent Case Shines Light on the Dark Web and Other Mysteries
    on September 29, 2022 at 5:42 am

    The web is bad enough, when it comes to invasion of privacy, but the Dark Web is something else altogether. In the unique case of Clemens v. ExecuPharm, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 24808 (Sept. 2, 2022) (Greenaway, Jr., C.J.), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit had the opportunity of looking at the harm caused to a company employee when her privacy was invaded by the ominous Dark Web.      

  • Trend Detected: Consumer Class Actions Target Retailers, Tech Companies Over 'Session Replay' Web Tracking
    on September 27, 2022 at 5:54 am

    This article features litigation insight from ALM's new Trend Detection system. This proprietary system uncovers shifts and patterns in case filings using advanced data analysis and expert curation. Trend Detection is included with Radar as part of a subscription.      

  • Ninth Circuit Internet Contributory Copyright Infringement Liability Standards: A Road to Confusion
    on August 29, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Inconsistent 'Cloudflare' rulings can be explained, at least in part, by the fact that the Ninth Circuit has provided an inconsistent framework involving multiple "tests" without guidance as to when such tests are to be applied.      

  • Dealing With Common Amazon Seller Legal Issues
    on August 25, 2022 at 3:00 pm

    Though the difficulties appear to be novel because of the e-commerce element, most can be properly and promptly addressed using traditional technological, business, and legal techniques.